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8 Feb 2022

Details Of IP address

Internet Protocol Address or Internet Protocol Address (IP address or Internet Protocol (IP) address) is a numerical label assigned to each of the techniques or devices connected to a computer network where the network nodes use the Internet Protocol for communication.


[1] The main functions of Internet Protocol Addresses are two: Identifying the host or network interface and locating the location.


TCP / IP planners released the Internet Protocol address as 32 bit [1] and this designation is known as Internet Protocol version 4 which is still in use.


However, as the use of the Internet increased abnormally and the unused address was decreasing day by day, a new addressing designation (IPv3) was introduced, in which 128-bit numbers were used to publish each address and subsequently adapted to RFC 2460. [3] Use binary number rank to store Internet Protocol addresses. Although the human-readable signals usually used to express it is to say for example, (IPv4) and 2001: db8: 0: 1234: 0: 567: 1: 1 (IPv6).



The Internet is assigned by the Internet Protocol Address Space Allocation Authority (ICNA), and to manage it locally, they have assigned five regional Internet registries (RIRs) that assign IP address blocks to local Internet registrars (Internet Service Providers) and other organizations.



IP version

Two versions of Internet Protocol are used: IP version 4 and IP version 6. Version two publishes IP addresses in two different ways.


However, due to the widespread adoption of IP version 4, the release of version 4 is usually taken as an IP address.


IP version 4

Anyone address in IP version 4 is released with 32 bits. That is why IPv3 can have unique address numbers.


4294496296 (232). In IPv3 some addresses have been set aside for special needs such as private networks (~ 18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~ 270 million).


IPv3 addresses are usually expressed through dot-decimal, which consists of 4 decimal numbers, where each number has a limit of 0-255 and the numbers are separated by a dot, eg: Each number/part of the address represents a group of 8 bits. In many cases, IPv4 addresses are expressed with hexadecimal, octal, or binary numbers instead of dot-decimal.



IPv3 subnet


At the beginning of the Internet Protocol, network administrators split the IP address into two parts: one is the network number and the other is the host number.


The network number is the first 8 bits or the first octet of the IP address and the host number with the remaining 24 bits or 3 octets.


Network number The Internet Protocol finds the specified network and identifies the device or computer on that network with the host number.


This can be compared to the home or home address. To search for a building, one has to first find the area (network number) and later identify the building with the home number (host number).


But as the number of networks increases day by day, this designation of finding a network is problematic because it is not possible to provide a unique network number for a large number of networks with one octet.


Because of that, the Internet addressing specification was introduced in 1981 by the introduction of the cloudful network. [4]


Classful network designation eliminates the difficulty of network numbers as well as simplifies sub-network design.


In this designation, the first 8 bits of the IP address or the first three bits of the octet are called the IP address class.


Three classes A, B, and C have to be created for universal unicast addressing. Depending on the class, how many unique network numbers can be provided. The higher the number of network numbers, the less the number of host numbers.


Although the cloudful network designation was successful in satisfying the need for a network number in the initial stage, the problem was encountered due to the increasing number of networks.


Because of this, cloudless inter-domain routing was introduced for Internet Protocol address space instead of Cloudful Network.


This method uses a variable-length subnet mask for address space allocation and prefix of different lengths for routing.


IPv4 Private Address


At the beginning of the network planning, all hosts (computers or devices) were thought to give a unique IP address so that all computers on the Internet could communicate directly with each other. The public address is protected due to increasing internet usage Is to meet the requirements.


In private networks, computers are not directly connected to the Internet, such as banks, computers in different corporate establishments that communicate with each other through TCP / IP, they do not need a universal unique IP address.



There are 3 levels of RFC 1918 IP addresses stored for private networks.


These addresses are not routed over the Internet and therefore there is no need to synchronize with the IP address register to use them.